Geopolitics

No Gain Without Pain: Estonia’s Views on EU Enlargement

In Estonian politics, there is a widespread agreement on the security and prosperity benefits of EU enlargement, particularly regarding Ukraine, but also for other candidate countries. However, nuances exist among different parties regarding the trade-off between the geopolitical argument for enlargement and the potential losses that Estonia might face.

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Europe’s Broken Order and the Prospect of a New Cold War

The Russian and western visions of European security have profoundly different ideational roots: balance of power embedded in realist geopolitics versus liberal rules-based order. Russia is a revisionist power aiming to re-establish a European security order based on the balance of power, including a recognition of its empire and sphere of influence. Russia’s aggressive pursuit of this vision has forced the West to defend the rules-based liberal order in Europe and beyond.

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AP/Kremlin Pool Photo/Scanpix

What Are the Legacies of Sino-Russian Relations?

The Sino-Russian relationship was, for many years, a subject that failed to excite. Very few experts committed time and effort to exploring its ups and downs. Those that did spent their time debating whether the relationship was really a marriage of true minds or a marriage of convenience.

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Reuters/Scanpix

Turkish Foreign Policy in Shifting Political Landscapes

Following WWII, Türkiye linked its security to the Western defence system, joining NATO in 1952. This connection protected it against Soviet expansionism, helped modernise and expand its armed forces, and integrate them with the community of democracies that it aspired to join. Also, Türkiye’s economy based on import substitution was extended support by its allies in return for the security value that the country offered.

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Why Russia Went to War: A Three-Dimensional Perspective

Since Ukraine’s independence became a recognised fact in 1991, the spectre of war with Russia has arisen on several occasions, only to subside. To many outsiders, the war of 2014 was a ‘hybrid war’ launched by ‘separatists backed by Russia’, rather than a fully-fledged war, and the ‘Minsk process’ was defusing it. Until the United States presented details of Russian war plans at the end of 2021, very few observers expected Russia to transgress the bounds of coercive intimidation in its dealings with Ukraine. Once war broke out in February 2022, the pervasive question was ‘why?’

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Europe’s Indo-Pacific Tilt: Estonian and Japanese Interests

Reshaped by the new great power competition, the international order has been undergoing revolutionary transformations. Revanchist Russia has unleashed a barbarian war against a sovereign European nation, while increasingly militarised and contentious China looms as a not-so-insidious threat in the Indo-Pacific. In response to these shifting dynamics and mounting geopolitical tensions, Europe is now awakening to the new reality and paying greater attention to the far-away region.

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Building European Security Against Russia – A View From Estonia

With Russia’s barbaric invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, major conventional war returned to Europe in a manner unseen since the two world wars and the end of the Cold War—three occasions during the 20th century when the borders, norms, institutions, and balance of power ordering interstate relations on the continent and beyond experienced an unparalleled upheaval.

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Putin and Assad, Partners in Crime: Why Russian Forces Steal Wheat From Ukraine

On 29 October, Russia withdrew from Black Sea Grain Initiative, only to announce it was re-joining the deal to ship the much-needed agricultural produce from war-stricken Ukraine to the Global South on the verge of starvation a few days later. Are these machinations, coupled with the systematic theft of wheat and its subsequent delivery to the Assad regime, parts of the same Russian puzzle and the same struggle for the multipolar world order? This paper explains the intricacies and significance of bread in the Syrian Civil War, as well as connects them to the Russian geopolitical strategy, goals, and state doctrines.

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