France

Does France Seek Alone European “Strategic Autonomy”?

The French President, Emmanuel Macron, recently gave an interview to Le Grand Continent, a journal published by the Groupe d’études géopolitiques. Macron discusses crises that plagued Europe and the world in 2020, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic and terrorism, as well as fundamental long-term transitional processes and challenges such as climate change, digital transformation and various intra- and inter-state inequalities.

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NATO Will Suffer as Allies Quarrel in the Eastern Mediterranean

The credibility of NATO’s deterrence posture rests heavily on the solidarity and cohesion of the Allies. A potential adversary is more likely to refrain from aggression if he believes—as Article 5 of the Washington Treaty states—that the Allies will indeed consider an armed attack against one or more of them to be an attack against them all.

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Dialogue for Agreeing to Disagree

The word “dialogue” comes from Greek and means “speaking through”. Dialogue among states in various formats is usually understood as the means to communicate directly between governments in order to settle differences, relieve tensions and pave the way for solving disputes or conflicts through negotiations to reach agreements.

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Who Needs a European Army?

The French call it l’Europe de la Défence. At first glance this seems to suggest, at least to non-French observers, a concept based on the complementarity and synergy of NATO’s military muscle and hard security guarantees, and the economic might and soft power (and capacity for resilience) provided by the European Union.

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