September 21, 2012

Russia-Turkey Energy Ties: Cooperation with Conflict

Energy relations between Russian and Turkey have long been characterized by overt friendship and subtle competition. Along with its booming economy, Turkey’s demand for energy has surged in recent years, growing faster than in almost any other country except China. Turkey must acquire almost all its oil and gas from foreign sources, primarily Russia. The large volume of oil and especially natural gas that Turkey regularly imports from Russia goes far toward explaining why Russia has become Turkey’s largest trading partner, displacing Germany in 2008.

Energy relations between Russian and Turkey have long been characterized by overt friendship and subtle competition. Along with its booming economy, Turkey’s demand for energy has surged in recent years, growing faster than in almost any other country except China. Turkey must acquire almost all its oil and gas from foreign sources, primarily Russia. The large volume of oil and especially natural gas that Turkey regularly imports from Russia goes far toward explaining why Russia has become Turkey’s largest trading partner, displacing Germany in 2008.


www.turkishweekly.net/news/140157/gazprom-four-tur….
2 “Gazprom to Sell More Gas to Independent Turkish Buyers,” Argus Media, July 10, 2012, www.argusmedia.com/News/Article?id=805233; and Katy Barnato, “Europe’s Fastest-Growing Economy Needs More Oil,” CNBC, August 17, 2012, www.cnbc.com/id/48690395.
3 “Russian President to Sign Strategic, Long-term Agreements in Ankara,” RIA Novosti, May 11, 2010, en.rian.ru/russia/20100511/158975258.htm.
4 Eric Watkins, “Russia to Build South Stream Natural Gas Pipeline via Turkey,” Oil and Gas Journal, January 9, 2012, www.ogj.com/articles/print/vol-110/issue-1a/genera….
5 See Prime Minister of Russia website, January 13, 2010, www.premier.gov.ru/eng/events/news/8965/.
6 Watkins, “Russia to Build South Stream,” 2012.
7 Alakbar Raufoglu, “Turkey, Russia at Odds over Middle East, Caucasus,” Foreign Policy Journal, June 3, 2012, www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2012/06/03/turkey-rus….
8 www.premier.gov.ru/eng/events/news/8965/.
9 Sebnem Arsu, “Turkey’s Pact with Russia Will Give It Nuclear Plant,” New York Times, May 12, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/05/13/world/europe/13turkey.h….
10 Anatoly Medetsky, “Turkish Pipeline Gets New Impetus,” Moscow Times, January 14, 2010, www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/turkish-pi….
11 “Russia, Turkey May Ban Oil Tanker Transportation across Black Sea,” RIA Novosti, May 6, 2010, en.rian.ru/russia/20100506/158895373.html.
12 “Turkey Expects Russia to Cover 70% of Turkey’s Oil and Gas Needs,” RIA Novosti, May 12, 2010, en.rian.ru/business/20100512/158989669.html.
13 Brian Whitmore, “Moscow Visit by Turkish PM Underscores New Strategic Alliance,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, January 12, 2010, www.rferl.org/content/Moscow_Visit_By_Turkish_PM_U….
14 John Daly, “Is the Nabucco Pipeline Worth the Cost?” January 12, 2010, www.turkishweekly.net/news/95555/is-the-nabucco-pi….
15 Joshua Kucera, “Caspian Basin: Russia and Turkey Raise Obstacles for US Energy Policy,” EurasiaNet, January 28, 2009, www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/e…
16 Vladimir Socor, “Turkey’s Stalling on Nabucco Hurts Europe, Azerbaijan, and Itself: Part Two,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, March 5, 2009, www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnew….
17 Merve Erdil, “Azeri Pipeline to ‘Help’ Turkey in Talks with EU,” Hürriyet Daily News, August 24, 2012, www.hurriyetdailynews.com/azeri-pipeline-to-help-t….
18 Arsu, “Turkey’s Pact with Russia 2010.
19 Katy Barnato, “Europe’s Fastest-Growing Economy Needs More Oil,” CNBC, August 17, 2012, www.cnbc.com/id/48690395.
20 Albert Bozzo, “Nuclear-Plant Plan May Test Turkey’s Trade-Diplomatic Balancing Act,” CNBC, August 15, 2012, www.cnbc.com/id/48550907.
21 Amanda Paul, “Turkey and Russia: Not Quite a Strategic Partnership,” Today’s Zaman, February 17, 2010, www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/columnists-201703-turke….
22 Sinem Demir, “Turkey’s Nuclear Power Plant Controversy,” Daily Energy Report, www.dailyenergyreport.com/2012/04/turkeys-nuclear-….
23 Aydan Eksin, “Aygaz, OMV, 11 Firms Seek to Sell Russia Gas to Turkey,” Bloomberg, August 14, 2012, www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-08-14/aygaz-omv-11-fir….
24 “Four Firms Sign Gazprom Deal,” Hurriyet Daily News, August 13, 2012, www.turkishweekly.net/news/140292/four-firms-sign-….
25 “Turkish Firms Bid to Buy 6 Bcm Russian Gas,” Reuters, August 10, 2012, www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/10/turkey-gas-idUS….
26 “Turkey Announces Tender for First Nuclear Power Plant,” RIA Novosti, March 23, 2008, en.rian.ru/world/20080324/102091932.html.
27 “Russia and Turkey Talking Cooperation,” World Nuclear News, February 17, 2009, www.world-nuclear-news.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=246….
28 “Press Statements Following the Russian-Turkish Talks,” President of Russia website, February 13, 2009, www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2009/02/13/2131_type82….
29 “Russia, Turkey Close to Mega Energy Deals: Official,” AFP, February 13, 2009, www.spacewar.com/2006/090213130053.s5hzsjls.html.
30 “Turkey, Russia Sign Joint Declaration on Energy Cooperation,” World Bulletin, January 14, 2010, www.worldbulletin.net/news_detail.php?id=52612.
31 ”Turkey and Russia Sign Nuclear Cooperation Deal,” Anadolu Agency, June 8, 2010. www.aa.com.tr/en/news/31888–turkey-and-russia-sig….
32 Russia, Turkey: A Grand Energy Bargain?” Stratfor, May 14, 2010, www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2010/05/14/russi….
33 Anatoly Medetsky, “Medvedev Lands $20Bln Nuclear Deal in Turkey,” Moscow Times, May 13, 2010, www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/medvedev-l….
34 Medetsky, “Medvedev Lands $20Bln Nuclear Deal,” 2010.
35 Ilya Khrennikov, “Russia, Turkey Agree on $25 Billion of Nuclear, Oil Projects,” Bloomberg, May 12, 2010, www.bloomberg.co.jp/apps/news?pid=20670001&si….
36 “Investment in Joint Russian-Turkish Projects to Top $25 Bln,” RIA Novosti, May 12, 2010, en.rian.ru/world/20100512/158991629.html.
37 Anatoly Medetsky, “Medvedev Lands $20Bln Nuclear Deal,” 2010.
38 “Nuclear Plant Is a Must for Sustainable Energy in Turkey,” Anadolu Agency, June 21, 2012, www.aa.com.tr/en/news/59525–s.
39 A. Taghiyeva, “Turkey Is in Talks to Build Second Nuclear Power Plant,” Turkish Weekly, August 22, 2012, www.turkishweekly.net/news/140631/turkey-is-in-tal…

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