In September 2013, the Russian-led military exercise Zapad 2013 (“West 2013”) took place in the Russian Western Military District and in Belarus. This was a combined joint forces exercise, which geographically covered the western parts of Russia, western Belarus, the enclave of Kaliningrad, which borders Lithuania and Poland, and the Baltic Sea. Some of the operations extended all the way up to the Barents Sea and its air space off the Kola Peninsula.
Pauli Järvenpää, “Zapad 2013: A View From Helsinki“, p 43-57, The Jamestown Foundation, Washington DC, December 2015.
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