Russia

Back to the Frontier

Preventing a new fault line from emerging on Europe’s northeastern ensures that the process of democratic transition may again be strengthened in its journey eastward, not only in Eastern Europe but possibly, one day, in Russia itself.

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The DDoS and Defacement Attacks of “Anonymous Ukraine” and “CCD COE”: interactions between “patriotic” hackers, media and political leadership in cyberspace

Attribution of cyberattacks is difficult and may take considerable time and resources. Many cyber security experts believe that to make sense of politically-motivated cyber incidents, the political and geopolitical context must be considered. The recent cyber incidents that took place in the Baltic countries and Ukraine during the NATO military exercise Steadfast Jazz (held in Poland and the Baltic States on November 2-9) provide a good opportunity to examine relationships between hacktivists, government-controlled media, as well as the possibility of links between “patriotic hacktivists” with elements within governments. The recent cyber incidents are remarkable also for their sequencing: when some Estonian and Latvian government websites came under distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, there was also an attempt to connect the Tallinn-based NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCD COE) with faked emails and defacement of webpages in Ukraine. What is more, both types of cyber incidents were used by Russian government- controlled and owned media outlets to misinform Russian speaking community in Russia and at its “near-abroad” about NATO.

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Transnistria – a soviet “antique” replica playing a strategic role in the EaP future

On any given summer Saturday morning in Tallinn, tourists can be found walking up and down the Balti Jaam flea market hoping to find a unique piece of the former Soviet era—whether military uniforms, pins or medals, portraits of Lenin, and red Communist Party membership cards. Unfortunately, these visitors rarely realize that since the supply of such relics is of course finite, the majority of them are cheap, newly-made copies—part of an industry that in a bizarre way is keeping the Soviet Union alive.

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How Gazprom Snoozed through the “Shale Gas Revolution”

The “shale gas revolution” in the United States is changing the world’s energy map. The International Energy Agency’s latest predictions suggest that by 2035 America will have become the world’s largest gas producer, outpacing Russia. Until recently, Gazprom, Russia’s natural gas monopoly, has been skeptical about such forecasts. But Gazprom’s lack of long-term vision can have negative implications both for the company and for the country.

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Moscow Ponders European Security

NATO and Russia continue to cooperate on many issues, especially within the framework of the NATO-Russia Council (NRC). Primary areas of collaboration include maritime piracy, military exchanges, training exercises, terrorism, crisis management, WMD nonproliferation, small arms control, theatre missile defense, maritime rescue, defense reform, civil emergencies, and new security threats. In February, the heads of the NATO Military Committee and the Russian General Staff opened a direct communications hotline in their latest endeavor to promote mutual transparency and collaboration.

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